A signal is a function of an independent variable (e.g., time) that carries some information or describes some physical phenomenon.

• Notation

-Continuous-time (CT) signal x(t): independent variable t takes continuous values -Discrete-time (DT) signal x[n]: independent variable n takes only integer values

• Examples

– Electrical signals: Voltages and currents in a circuit. – Acoustic signals: Audio and speech signals. – Biological signals: ECG, EEG, medical images.

Applications

The analysis of signals and systems now plays a fundamental role in a wide range of engineering disciplines:

• Speech: recording, compression, synthesis • Music: recording, processing, and synthesis • Petroleum: Seismic surveying and Geological exploration •Telecommunications: AM/FM Radio, speech, mobile phone, and internet

Systems

A system responds to one or several input signals, and its response is described in terms of one or several output signals. This course primarily focuses on single-input single-output (SISO) systems:

• Examples

– An RLC circuit. – The dynamic of an aircraft.

• There are three ways to represent discrete time signals.

1) Functional Representation { 4 for n=1, 3 x(n)= { -2 for n =2 { 0 elsewhere

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